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依法治教,高校应补课
来源:中国科学报      作者:温才妃      2015年08月18日       

两年前,发生在新疆乌鲁木齐的两起替考案,日前有了结果。原本是校方按照规定处分违规违纪替考学生,结果被处分的学生把学校告到了法院,最后学生胜诉。两名学生得以恢复学籍,重新回到校园。

这一听起来略有些匪夷所思的结果,实际上是由于高校在作出开除处理决定前,忽视了学生应有的陈述和申辩权利,且学校没有合法向学生送达处理决定造成的,属于未遵循法定程序,最终导致高校败诉。

用法律手段解决纷争,是目前最公平的解决方式之一。但长期以来,这并不是国内高校调解学生纠纷最擅长的解决方式。学生被劝退、开除,在校期间出意外……美国、欧洲等高校最通常的做法是诉诸于法律,由法律裁定、判决,双方尊重法律裁定、判决的结果;而中国高校为了息事宁人,大多数的情况下宁愿选择放水通过、赔钱或升学等补偿方式,也不愿意将之闹上公堂。这就使得中国高校长期以来缺少处理学生纠纷的法律经验。换句话说,中国高校尚未形成依法治教的氛围,这才使得违规学生有机会钻法律的空子。

换一个角度,我们也不妨问问高校对于法律的熟知程度又有多少?有高校系主任私吞“小金库”,庭审时自称不懂法;法律系毕业生回校盗窃,被抓时质问民警“懂不懂法”……针对这起事件——高校处分学生时程序违法,有关法律人士认为,依法治教难实施的关键点在于,一是教育规章的制定超越了法律法规授权的范围,二是教育行为颠倒法律法规和规章的关系,三是执法人员的法治思维尚未形成。

眼下,高校纷纷出台大学章程,呼吁依法治教。依法治教的氛围,当然不会因为一部大学章程的出台,陡然提升。但是,这起事件却在此时提醒一些高校在处理学生纠纷时应摆脱唯我独尊的姿态,呼吁立法、执法的同时更要懂法。

面对依法治教,笔者认为,高校起码应该将遵守法律视作高校制定规章制度的基础,通过高校办学者的一言一行养成依法办事的行为习惯,同时对于法律裁定的结果予以公开透明,以此建立师生们在法律面前人人平等的观念。


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